Senin, 16 November 2009

Komentar Para Imam Madzhab Hanafi Tentang Isu Seputar Kubur

Here are some Hanafi Fatawa gathered from the book of Dawud Arshad in Urdu “Din al Haqq”, the book "Islam or Qabron ke Urs" of Shaykh Ataullah Haneef Bhujiyani and others.

The origin of Idol worship is to take graves of saints as places or worship

Ibn ‘Abidin said concerning the reason of forbidding the prayer in graveyards:

“There is difference on the reason (for this forbiddance), it has been said because the bones and rests of the dead are there and they are impure, and this contains objection (meaning this matter is not right). It has been said (that the reason is) because the origin of idol worship is to take the graves of saints as places of worship (Masajid) and it has been said because it resembles the Jews.” [“Rad Al-Muhtar” p 254 ]

So ibn ‘Abidin in quoting the sayings of Hanafi scholars quoted that the origin of idol worship is to take the graves of saints as places of worship. And he did not reject that this is the origin of idol worship showing his approval of this and this might be the reason of forbidding prayer in graveyards, while some others mention other reasons. Yet none denied that origin of idol worship

Vow to the creation is worship of the creation

In “Dur ul-Mukhtar”, it is written:

“It should be known that the vow (Nadhr) done by majority of people (Akthar nass) to the dead, putting sheets and oil on graves, the sacrifices done to get close to Saints, all of this is without any doubt Batil (falsehood) and Haram.”

Ibn ‘Abidin explained the reasons in “Rad ul Muhtar” vol 2 p 439:

“The reasons of it being Batil and Haram are many, one of them is that it is vow (Nadhr) to the creation, and vow to creation is Haram, because vow (Nadhr) is worship and worship is not for creation, and also the person from whom it is done is dead, and the dead doesn’t decide of anything (doesn’t possess anything), and the person who does that believes that the dead has a control in creation without Allah, and this belief is Kufr” []

Ibn Nujaym said the same, talking about the different forms of Nadhr and invocations. [“Bahr ur Raiq” v 2 p 298]

What is the Sunnah during visits of graves?

Ibn Humam said in “Fath Al-Qadir”, vol 2 p 102, Maktabah Rashidiyah, Kuwait:

“Sleeping close to grave and relieving his needs, and all that is not justified by Sunnah is Makruh (Haram), and what is justified by the Sunnah is only to visit graves, to read invocations while standing as would the Prophet (saw) do when he was going to Baqi’”

Zaynudin ibn Nujaym said: “It is forbidden (Makruh) to do on graves all things that are not justified by the Sunnah, and what is justified by the Sunnah is to stand to the grave and do Du’a as would the Prophet (saw) do during his visits to Baqi’” [“Bahr Raiq” vol 2 p 196]

Taking the graves of the Prophet (saw) and saints as places ‘Idd

Abu Hurayrah narrates from the Prophet (saw): “Do not take my grave as ‘Idd, and do not turn your houses in graves, and send salutations on me from where you are, because your salutations are send to me.” [Ahmad, Abu Dawud, declared Sahih by Albani in “Ahkam Jana’iz”]

Shah Waliyullah said in his “Hujjatullah Al-Balighah”, v 1 p 77:

“This is an indication to close the door of deviation, deviation similar to what the Jews and Christians did to the graves of their Prophets by turning them into places of ‘Idd and seasonal celebration to the level of Hajj.”

Shah Waliyullah said in his “Tafhimat Al-Ilahiyah” v 2 p 64:

“Among the greatest of innovations is what they invented concerning the graves and taking them as places of ‘Idd”

Shah Waliyullah said in his “Balagh ul Mubin” p 31:

“The custom of fire worshipers and idol worshipers of India is to appoint a day every year to do ‘Idd in which great crowds gather. The saint worshipers following their footsteps have invented many ‘Idds, and they appoint ‘Urs (celebration of birth) on the graves of saints, and they celebrate in the same way (as Hindus) with songs, music and games, by which they please the evils spirits and Shayatin and displease these saints”

Qadhi Thanaullah PaniPati said in his “Tafsir Mazhari” v 2 p 65:

“It is not permissible to do what ignorant people do at the graves of saints and martyrs like prostration towards them, Tawaf around them, putting lanterns over them, establishing mosques over them and gathering over them every year like the Idds they call ‘Urs”

Mirza Mazhar Jan Janan, Shaykh of Thanaullah Panipati said:

“One should not get involved in the popular ‘Urs and other customs (on graves)” (“Maqamat Mazhari” of Shah Ghulam Mujaddidi p 44)

Shah ‘Abdul Aziz wrote in his “Fatawa ‘Azizi” v 1 p 40 as summarized:

“Doing gatherings on graves with an appointed day in a year, in which they wear beautiful clothes like on ‘Idd, play musical instruments and dance on them, and do different innovations like they prostrate towards the graves, perform Tawaf around them are all forbidden actions, rather it is feared that it leads to Kufr, and there are two Ahadith related to this issue: “Do not take my grave as a place of ‘Idd” and “O my Lord, prevent my grave from being turned into a worshiped idol”

Shah Muhammad Ishaq said in his “Arba’een Masail” p 68:

“It is not permissible to do ‘Urs”

And Shah Ishaq has a detailed discussion about this in his “Miatu Masail” p 15-18.

Travelling for the purpose of visiting the graves of Prophets and saints

Abu Said Khudri narrates from the Prophet (saw) : “Do not set your Ride fro travel except for three Mosques : This Mosque (Madinah), Masjid Al Haram and Masjid Al Aqsa” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Abu Bassrah Al-Ghifari said: “I met Abu Hurayrah who was coming back from a travel and I asked him : “Where do you come from ?” He said “From Mount Tur and I prayed there” He said “ Had I met you before, you wouldn’t have gone there, because I heard the Prophet saw saying “Do net set your ride (for travel) except for three Mosques : Masjif AL Haram, this Mosque and Majid AL-Aqsa” [“Musnad Ahmad”, declared Sahih by Shaykh Albani in “Ahkam Jana’iz”]

Shah Waliyullah said concerning this Hadith in his “Hujjatullah Al-Balighah”, v 1 p 192:

“The people of Jahiliyah used to seek the places that were noble according to their thoughts, and they would visit them and seek benediction (Tabarruk) from them, and this contains deviation and corruption (Fasad) to a level that cannot be hidden. So the Prophet (saw) closed the door of this corruption so that other than holy places (ghayr Sha’air) are not attached to the holy places (Sha’air), so it does not become a mean towards worship of other than Allah), and the truth for me is that the grave or the place of worship of a saint among saints of Allah have the same status as the mount Tur in the forbiddance (to travel for their purpose).”

Shah Waliyullah said in his “Tafhimat Al-Ilahiyah” v 2 p 45:

“Everyone who goes to the city of Ajmer or the grave of Salar Mas’ud or what is similar to them to seek a need from it, then he is a sinner committing a sin greater than killing and fornication. It has no similar except the case of the one who worships fabricated idols or similar to the one who invokes Al-Lat and ‘Uzza”

Qadhi Ibrahim and Shah Waliullah: grave worship is same as idol worship

Qadhi Ibrahim Al-Hanafi wrote in his book “Majalis al-Abrar”:

“Now we see misguided people and who misguide others starting to do Hajj on graves, they have codified the etiquettes and behaviour, to such a level that some extremists have wrote books on this topic “Manasik Hajj wa Mashahid” making a similitude between the grave and Bayt ul Haram. It is clear that these beliefs lead to the departure from the religion of Islam and to enter in the religion of Idol worshipers. Compare between what the Prophet (saw) has legislated as forbidden acts concerning graves in what has preceded, and between what people have legislated. Without any doubts, the drawbacks in this are too many that we will get tired in mentioning them all. On one side, showing so much respect leads to make people fall into temptation (Fitnah).

And it gives to graves more importance than Mosques, which are among most loved places by Allah, because these people by going to graves show such a respect, such importance, such humility and khushu’ that they don’t manifest in Mosques…

(Among Fasad), they take graves as places of worship, do spiritual retreat (I’tikaf) on graves, they put over them sheets, appoint a guardian for this grave, and they even think that the guardian of these graves are better than guardians of Masjid uL Haram. They consider that sitting on graves is better than keeping mosques.

Also , the fact of doing vows (Nadhr) to graves and their guardians, to go there for prayer, doing Tawaf of graves, kissing the grave, touching them, putting dust of graves on their faces, invocating graves, asking them for help, victory, sustenance, health, children, return of loan, removal of difficulties and others invocations that worshipers of idols present to their idols, all of this is not approved by any Imam of the religion, because all of this has not be done by the Prophet (saw) of the Lord of universe, neither by the Sahabah, Tabi’is and Imams of the religion.” End of Qadi Ibrahim's words.

Shaykh Abdallah Ar-Ropuri quoted in his book “Sama’ Muta” the words of Shah Waliyullah:

“Shah Waliyullah said: “The worshipers of saints say that when a man through worship and mediation reaches the level in which his invocations are answered and his intercession accepted, when he leaves this world, his soul comes to a great strength and accessibility, every person who imagine his form (in his mind), prostrate towards the place where the saints used to sit or to his grave with humility, the soul of the saint comes to him with largess and greatness, he intercedes for him in this world and the hereafter, And a lot of verses and Ahadith oppose this group, among them we have Allah’s saying:

“Have they taken others as intercessors besides Allâh? Say: "Even if they have power over nothing whatever and have no intelligence?"” (Zumar 39: 43)

“And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them?” And when mankind are gathered (on the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become enemies for them and will deny their worshipping.” [Ahqaf: 5-6]

We should remind that this verse is a clear prove that invisible souls and hidden bodies that are worshiped and asked demands, that are supplicated, these people are not aware of their worship, whether they are Prophets or saints, and on Judgment day when Allah will make aware these pious persons about the people that worshiped them, then these pious will reject this instead of thanking them for their worship and instead of interceding for them. These verses show that when the gathering will occur, these pious will be their enemies and will reject their worship, and the verse also shows that invoking them is worshiping them, because the first Ayat shows invocation and the second makes reference to worship.

Another verse is more explicit, where Allah says:

“And your Lord said: "Invoke Me, I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! Those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!" [Ghafir: 60]

And the Prophet (saw) said that invocation is worship, (Tirmidhi Sahih), it is the core of worship…

It is proven that directing demands to fulfill needs to the saints of Allah, invoking them for help by going to their graves means to worship them, even if the worshiper doesn’t consider his demand as worship, and affirms not worshiping graves, but rather he (claims he) performs a visit to the grave…

(After quoting ahadith about the different invocations done by the Prophet (saw) for the dead during his visits of graves, Shah Waliyullah said:) “These Ahadiths clearly show that during the visits of graves, beside remembrance of hereafter and death, the Prophet (saw) and the Sahabah did not have any other purpose but doing invocations of forgiveness and mercy for the people of graves, so that the dead profits from the invocations of living people, and the invocations for believers is an action that benefits living and dead in retribution.

And nowadays, the people visit graves in search of benefits from the dead, they consider their soul as aware of their actions and state, and they display a great humility and submission, and seek to get their needs and say: “Fulfill this and this demand” or “Ask Allah to fulfill my need and relive my difficulty”

And Muhammad (saw), the Sahabah and pious Ahle Bayt take refuge thousand times against this new religion. [“Balagh al-Mubin” p 18]

Al-Alusi family’s sayings against grave worshipers

And Shukri Al-Alusi, great son of Mahmud Al-Alusi said in “Ghayatul Amani” in refutation of An-Nabbahani about Tawassul with du’a: “And this is done with alive people, and not dead, and this is Tawassul with their du’a and their Shafa’ah (intercession), because the alive is sought for that, and as for the dead, nothing is sought from him, neither Du’a nor anything else.” (“Ghayatul Amani” v 2 p 335)

Imam Mahmud Al-Alusi said in his “Ruh ul-Ma’ani” in Tafsir of the verse “Seek Wasilah to Him” (Maidah: 35):

“And Tahqiq of Kalam (verified speech) in this place is that Istighathah with creation, and making it a Wasilah in the meaning of asking Du’a to them, there is no doubt in its permissibility if the sought person is alive, and we do not restrict this to the case of the one being asked is superior, rather one can ask the superior and the inferior, and it has been authenticated that he (saw) asked Umar (to make du’a for him) when he sought for permission for Umrah: “ Do not forget your brother in your du’a” and he ordered him as well to seek Uwais AL Qarni so he seeks forgiveness for him, and he (saw) ordered the community to ask Wasilah (place in paradise) for him as it has just been mentioned and by they sending Sala upon him.

As for when the sought person is dead or absent, it is not hidden for scholars that it is not permissible and it is from innovations that none of the Salaf did…

Second, that people have increased in du’a to other than Allah from loved Awliya among dead and others, as “Ya Sayidi So and So (Fulan) Aghithni (help me)” and this is not from the permitted form Tawassul in anyway…a great number of scholars have considered that as Shirk…and I do not see anybody who says this except that he believes that the invoked alive absent or dead hidden knows the invisible or hears his saying and is powerful with his essence or with other to bring good and remove problems, and if not he would not have called him nor opened his mouth, and in this there is a great test from Allah…

There is no doubt that Istighathah from people of graves… is a matter that is obligatory to be avoided, and it is not suitable for people of intelligence to do that, and you should not be deceived if the seeker of help can have his need fulfilled and his matter asked being granted, because this is a test and trial (Fitnah) from Him (Azza wa Jalla), and Shaytan can take appearance of the one whose help was sought, and people can think that it is a Karamat (miracle) from the invoked, far away far away, it is only Shaytan who misguides him and deceives him, and he makes beautiful his desire, this is like Shaytan speaking in idols to misguide their worshipers. And the misguided people think that it is from the emanation of the soul of the invoked for help, or an angel in the form of the invoked as a Karamat for him, and this is very bad how they judge, because Tatawur and Zuhur (apparition of miracles) although they are possible, but not in cases like this after doing these kinds of sins, and we ask Allah with His Names to protect us from that.”

Mahmud Al-Alusi said in Tafsir of Surah Nazi’at about “Mudabirah” after quoting many interpretations:

“And it is not hidden that a lot of these sayings, they do not deserve such plenty quotes, and they do not have strength appropriate for this place, and there is in that what old people of direction say from movements Iradiyah from stars (as being Mudabirat) and these are particulars movements from them and others among what is not present in words of Salaf and there is no proof for that, this is why the Muhadiths among philosophers said contrary to this, and interpreting Mudabirah as stars, there is mistake of authenticity of what people of rulings and ignorant among astrologers believe and this is Batil from reason and religious texts as we have detailed in what has preceded.

And the same for interpreting them (Mudabirat) as pious souls leaving (bodies) (meaning this is not justified by reason nor religious texts), this is mistake of authenticity of what a lot of people from low intelligence say, that Saints have control (Tasarruf) after their death as curing sick people, saving drowning man, helping against enemies and others from what happens in world of creation, and there is Fasad (falsehood) in meaning that Allah gave them these (powers), and from them some who make that particular to five saint, and all of that is ignorance and second is greater ignorance…”

Other Hanafi scholars

Shaykh Albani quotes in his book “Tawassul” the words of Shaykh ‘Athemabadee from his “Ta’liq ‘ala Mughni”:

“They (Ahnaf) also say in “Al-Bazzaziyah” and other books of religious verdict : “Whoever claims that the souls of Shaykhs are present, and they know what happens, he becomes Kafir” [“Al-Bahr” (5/134) ]

Also Shaykh Fakhruddin Abu Sa’d ‘Uthman Al-Jiyani Ibn Sulayman Al-Hanafi says in one of his risalah: “Whoever thinks that a dead person has any control on matters besides Allah, and he believes in it, then he is a Kafir” This is mentioned in “Al-Bahrur-Raiq”.

Al-Qadi Hamidudin An-Nakori Al-Hindi says in “At-Tawshih”: “Among them, there are those who invoke Prophets and saints when they are in need or have a difficulty, thinking that their souls are present and hear their calls and know their needs, This is horrible Shirk and clear ignorance”” End of Shaykh Albani’s quote.

Saying of Shah Waliyullah in his "Hujjatullah Al-Balighah"

Shah Waliyllah explained the different kinds of Shirk (polytheism) in his “Hujjatullah Al-Balighah” (English translation done by Marcia K. Hermansen):


The Categories of Associationism (Shirk)

The true nature of associationism (shirk) is that a person should think that the amazing effects emanating from a revered personage only emerge due to his being characterized by an attribute of perfection which is unknown among humans, but which rather is restricted to the Necessary Being, may His magnificence be exalted. Rather he believes that this is not found in anyone else unless God bestows the mantle of divinity upon another, or annihilates this other in His essence, and makes him subsist through His essence, or something of this sort which the believer in these varieties of superstitions holds. An example is what was reported in the hadith, "The polytheists used to utter the following formula of `talbiyya' : `We are at Your service (labbaik), we are at Your service, You have no partner except an associate over whom You possess sovereignty while he does not."" Thus they humbled themselves to the furthest extent before this other, and they behaved toward this person in the way people behave with respect to God, may He be Exalted.

This concept has various embodiments and forms, and the divine law only discusses embodiments and forms of it which people practice with the intention of associationism, so that they become anticipated sources of shirk and customarily inseparable from it. This is similar to the practice of the divine law in establishing the causes that entail good or evil actions as being tantamount to those acts themselves. We want to alert you to those things which God, may He be Exalted, has made anticipated sources (mazinnat) of associationism in the divine law brought by Muhammad, may there be peace and blessings upon the one who brought it, so that he forbade them.

1) Among them is their former custom of prostrating before idols and stars, so that prostration before other than God was forbidden. God said, may He be exalted, "Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon; but prostrate to Allah Who created them."' (41 : 37)

Association (of others with God) in prostration necessarily entailed associationism with regard to the divine management, as we have alluded to. The matter is not as certain Theologians think, i.e., that being exclusively worshipped is one of the commands of God, may He be Exalted, which may vary with the variation in religions and which can not be pursued through demonstrated proof. How could it be, for if it were thus, God, may He be Exalted, would not have required them (the associators) to consider Him unique in creation and management. As He, the Greatest Speaker said, "Say: Praise be to Allah, and peace be on His servants whom He has chosen! Is Allah better (or those others that they associate with Him)" (27 : 59) and so on for five verses.' Rather the truth is that they had acknowledged His exclusive claim to creation and divine management in important matters and they agreed that worship is attendant on these two things, according to what we have indicated in the discussion of the meaning of belief in the unity of God.' Therefore God held them responsible for what He enjoined on them,' and "God has the convincing argument." (6 : 149)

2) Among them (the types of shirk) is that they used to request assistance with their needs such as in curing the sick and meeting the needs of the poor, from other than God. They would make vows to them, expecting the accomplishment of their purposes through these vows, and they would recite their names, hoping for their blessing. Therefore, God, may He be Exalted, made incumbent upon them that they say during their prayers: "Thee alone do we worship, Thee alone do we ask for help." (1 : 4) And He said, may He be Exalted, "Call upon no one except God." (72 : 18) The meaning of "calling upon" (du'a) is not "worship" ('ibada) as certain of the interpreters of the Qur'an said, it rather means "seeking help," according to the saying of God, may He be Exalted, "No, but you call (tad'una) upon Him and He removes the thing because of which you call upon Him."" (6 : 41)

3) Among them are that they used to call some of the ones whom they associated with Him, "daughters of God" and "sons of God." They were then forbidden this most strongly, and we have explained the secret behind this previously.

4) Among them is that they used to think that "their rabbis and monks were lords besides God,"" may He be Exalted, in the sense that they used to believe that whatever things they declared permissible were permitted, and that there was nothing wrong with them in themselves; and they believed that whatever they declared forbidden was prohibited and that they Would be blamed for doing it. Then when His, may He be Exalted, saying was revealed: "They have taken their rabbis and monks," (9 : 31) 'Adi ibn Hkim asked the Prophet of God about it. He answered, "They used to say that things were permitted for them, so that they regarded them as lawful; and they used to forbid them some things so that they considered them forbidden.""

The secret behind this is that making something permitted or forbidden is an expression for a creative process (takwin) that is operative at the level of Malakiit whereby one will or will not be held accountable fora certain thing. Thus this creative process (takwin) is the reason for a person being or not being held accountable for a thing, and this is part of the Attributes of God, may He be Exalted."

As for the attribution of permitting or prohibiting to the Prophet, it is in the sense of his speech being a decisive sign (imara) of God's permitting or forbidding. As for the attribution of them (permitting and forbidding) to the legal interpreters (mujtahidun) of his community, this is in the sense of their transmitting this element of the divine legislation based on the revealed text of,the lawgiver, or their inferring the meaning of his words.

You should know that when God, may He be Exalted, sends a Prophet and confirms his message by miracles, and through him permits some things which had been forbidden to them, some people find in themselves a resistance to this," so that there remains in their hearts an inclination to forbid it due to the prohibition which had existed in their community. This (vacillation) may be occur in two ways. If it is due to a hesitation in confirming this divine law, then the person who hesitates is a disbeliever in the Prophet. If it is due to a belief that the first ban took place in such a way as to render abrogation impossible because God, may He be Exalted, had bestowed on some human being a robe of divinity, or because this person was annihilated in God and subsisted through Him, so that his forbidding or disliking an act required that it would produce a loss in a person's wealth and his family; then this one is a polytheist (mushrik) who affirms that there is a sacred wrath, displeasure, forbidding and permitting on the part of someone other than God.

5) Among them is that people used to seek to gain favor from idols and the stars by sacrificing to them, either through invoking their names during the sacrifice, or by sacrificing to idols designating them, which they were forbidden to do.

6) Among them are that in order to draw closer to those whom they associated with God, they would set free a Sa'iba and a Bahira." Thus God, may He be Exalted, said, "Allah has not made (any rule in the nature of) a Bahira or a Sa'iba."" (5 : 103)

7) Among them was their belief that the names of certain people were blessed and exalted, and that to tell a lie while swearing by their name would incur a loss of wealth or an injury to family, so they refrained from doing this. They therefore used to make their opponents swear oaths by the names of those alleged "partners," then this was forbidden to them. The Prophet said, "Whoever makes an oath by other than God, commits shirk."" Some of the scholars have interpreted this as being rigorous and a threat, but I do not hold this position. What is meant, in my opinion, is the oath made in the name of other than God that one will do or will abstain from doing something in the future," and an oath in which no exception is made by saying, "If God wills,"" according to the belief which we have mentioned.

8) Among them is the performance of a pilgrimage in honor of anyone other than God, may He be Exalted. This occurs when people go to visit spots sacred to those whom they worship other than God, and believe that by alighting in those places they will draw closer to these ones. This the divine law forbade. The Prophet said, "Do not saddle your camel except (to travel) to three mosques. (Mecca, medina and Jeruslaem, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasai, darimi, ibn Hambal)

9) Also among them was their practice of naming their sons "'Abd al-'Uzza ... ... Abd Shams," (Such names refer to being the slave of the pre-Islamic God al-`Uzza or the sun (al-shams)) and so forth. God said, “He it is who created you from a single soul, and made from it its spouse that he might take rest in her, (then when he covered her, she bore a light burden, and she passed [unnoticed] with it, but when it became heavy they cried unto Allah, their Lord, saying: If thou givest unto us a righteous son we shall be of the thankful. But when He gave unto them a righteous son, they ascribed unto Him partners in respect of that which He had given them. But God is high exalted above all that they associate with him)." (7 : 189-190)

It is reported in the hadith that Eve called her son 'Abd al Harith' (Tirmidhi) and that this was due to an inspiration front devil. It is confirmed in innumerable hadith reports that the Prophet changed the names of his companions 'Abd al-'Uzza and 'Abd Shams and suchlike to `Abd Allah and 'Abd al-Rahman and other similar names. (Ibn Hambal)

These are embodiments and forms of associationism, which the law giver forbade due to their being forms of it, and God knows better." End of Shah Waliyullah's words

May Allah send Salah and Salam on the Prophet (saw), his household, companions and those who follow them

Dikompilasi Ali Hassan Khan di