Jumat, 13 November 2009

Apakah Asy'ariyah Adalah Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama'ah

Are the Asharees from Ahlussunnah walJamaa`ah?

From: The Methodology of the Asharees in Aqeedah pp.15-21 by Safar bin Abdur-Rahmaan al-Hawaalee

The term Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah is used with two separate meanings:
A. The General Meaning: which is used for those in opposition to the Shee`ah, so it is said: Those who claim adherence to Islaam are of two classes: Ahl us-Sunnah and the Shee`ah. So Shaikh ul-Islaam titled his book in reply to the Raafidees `Minhaaj us-Sunnah` and in it he made the two meanings clear, and clearly stated that the positions of the innovated sects are from the Ahl us-Sunnah only with this particular meaning [of `Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah].
This meaning covers everyone except for the Shee`ah, such as the Ash`arees, especially since with regard to the subject of the companions and the khulafaa (caliphs) the Ash`arees are in agreement in methodology between them as will follow.
B. The Specific Meaning: Which is used for those in opposition to the innovators and the people of the innovated sects, and this is the more frequent usage. So when in the books of criticism of narrators when they say about a man that he was from Ahl us-Sunnah and the like, then what is meant is that he was not from one of the innovated sects such as the Khawaarij, the Mu`tazilah and the Shee`ahs and he was not a person of theological rhetoric (Kalaam) and innovated ideas.
So as for this meaning then the Ash`arees do not enter into it at all. Rather they are outside it and Imaam Ahmed and Ibn al-Madeenee have stated textually that whoever involves themselves in any theological rhetoric is not counted amongst the Ahl us-Sunnah, even if by that he arrives at the Sunnah, until he abandons debating and surrenders to the texts. So they do not lay down as a condition that a person merely agrees with the Sunnah, rather that he must take and derive with it (alone). So he who takes from the Sunnah is from its people even if he makes an error, and he derives from somewhere else is in error even if in conclusion he agrees with it. But the Ash`arees as you will see, take and derive from other than the Sunnah and they do not agree with it in their conclusions, so how can they be from its people (people of the Sunnah).
We will now quote the rulings about them from the scholars of the fours madhdhabs of fiqh, so what do you think was the position of the companions of hadeeth, the scholars of hadeeth criticism?

1. The Maalikees

The haafiz of the west and its outstanding scholar Ibn Abdil Barr reported with his chain of narration from the scholars of the Maalikees in the east Ibn Khuzaima that he said in the book of witnesses (Kitaab us-Shuhudaat) in explanation of the saying of the Maalik that it is not permissible to eccept the witness of the people of innovation and innovated sects, and he said:
`The people of the innovated sects in the view of Maalik and the rest of our Companions are the people of theological rhetoric (Kalaam). So every person of the theological rhetoric is from the people of the innovated sects and innovation: whether he is an Ash`aree, or other than an Ash`aree, and his witness is not accepted in Islaam ever. Indeed he is to be ostracized, and punished for his innovation and if he persists in it repentance is to be sought from him`
[Jaami Bayaan il-Ilmi wa Fadlihi (2/117)]
Also Ibn Abdil Barr himself reports in [Al-Ihtiqaa] from the three scholars: Maalik, Aboo Haneefah and Ash-Shaafi`ee that they forbade theological rhetoric and spoke severely against its people, and that they are innovators and are to be punished. Its like is reported by Ibn ul- Qayyim in [Ijtimaa ul-Juyoosh il-Islaamiyyah] and what are the Ash`arees except people of theological rhetoric?
Imaam Abul-Abbaas ibn Suraij known as `ash-Shaafi`ee the second` and he was a contemporary of Al-Ash`aree, said:
`We do not speak with Ta`weel (interpretation) of the Mu`tazilah, the Ash`arees, the Jahmiyyah, the apostates, the anthropomorphists (Mujassimah and Mushabbihah), the Karraamiyyah and those who declare Allaah to be like His creation (Mukayyifah - those asking about the modality of His attributes). Rather we accept them [the texts about Allaah`s attributes] without interpretation (Ta`weel) and we believe in them without declaring any likeness with the creation (Tamtheel).`

2. The Shaafi`ees

Imaam Abul-Hasan al-Kurjee, one of the Shaafi`ee scholars of the fifth century said:
`The Shaafi`ee Imaams have not ceased disdaining and detesting that they should be ascribed to al-Ash`aree and they disassociate themselves from that which al-Ash`aree built his madhdhab upon, and they forbid their companions and beloved ones from approaching it, as I have heard from a number of the shaikhs and imaams. He then gave an example of the shaikh of the Shaafi`ees of his time Imaam Aboo Hamid al-Isfaareenee who was known as `ash-Shaafi`ee the third` saying:
`The severity of the Shaikh against the people of theoretical knowledge is well known, to the point that he even made a distinction between the principles of the fiqh of ash-Shaafi`ee and the principles of the Ash`aree. Notes upon this were added by Aboo Bakr ar-Raadhiqaanee and it is with me. He was followed in this by Shaikh Aboo Ishaaq ash-Sheeraazww in his two books, `al-Lumaa` and `at-Tabsirah` to the point that if a point of al-Ash`aree agreed with one saying amongst our companions he made distinction and said: `It is the saying of the Ash`arees` and he did not include them amongst the companions of ash-Shaafi`ee. They disdained and avoided them and their madhdhab in the principles of fiqh not to mention with regard to the principles of the Religion.`
[at-Tis`eeniyyah (p. 238-239) and see `Sharhul-Asfahaaniyyah` (5:31) from the Fataawaa al- Kubraa itself]

3. The Hanafees

As is known the author of at-Tahaawiyyah and its explainers were both Hanafees, and at-Tahaawee was a contemporary of al-Ash`aree, and he wrote his Aqeedah to explain the Aqeedah of Imaam Abu Haneefah and his companions, and it is very like what is found in Fiqh al-Akbar from him. They report from the Imaam that he clearly states the Kufr (disbelief) of one who says that Allaah (swt) is not upon the Arsh (throne) or remains silent about it.
Also his student Aboo Yoosuf declares Bishr al-Maareesee to be a Kaafir, and as is well known the Ash`arees deny Allaah`s ascension and deny that He the Most High is above the Arsh (Throne) and it is also well known that their principles were taken from Bishr al-Maareesee!!
[See what is mentioned in Siyar A`laamin-Nubulaa in the Biography of Bishr 910/200-201) and al-Hamawiyyah pp.14-15)]

4. The Hanbalees

The position of the Hanbalees with regard to the Ash`arees is more famous than to need mention. So since Imaam Ahmad declared `Ibn Kullaab` to be an innovator adn ordered to be ostracized, and he was the true founder of the Ash`aree madhdhab. The Hanbalees have not ceased to be involved in a long battle with them. Even to the time of the state of Nizaam ul-Mulk in which they behaved presumptuously, and after it the Hanbalees ejected every speaker who mixed anything from the madhdhab of the Ash`arees into his speeches. Ibn ul-Qushairi was one of those who experienced this, and because their madhdhab had become so widespread, and due to the agreement of the scholars of the state, especially the Hanbalees that he should be opposed, so the Khaleefah al-Qaadir sent out al-I`tiqaad al-Qaadiree which clarified the Aqeedah which was binding upon the Ummah in the year 433H.
[See al-Muntazam of Ibnul-Jawzee, events of the year 433, 469 &475 - vols 8 & 9]
And Shaikhul-Islam (Ibn Taymiyyah) quotes in al-Istiqaamah (pp.85-86): that when Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee was asked:
`Has there ever been one who was a Walee of Allaah who was upon other than the Aqeedah of Ahmad bin Hanbal?` He replied: `That has not occurred and will not occurr.`
So the correct ruling about the Ash`arees is that they are from the Ahlul-Qiblah, about which there is no doubt, but as to their being Ahl us-Sunnah, then NO!
Whoever is upon the Ash`aree sect should fear Allaah and give up his deviant aqeedah, and take up the aqeedah of the Messenger (sas) and his companions.

Oleh Bassam Zawadi